Treatment of relapsed and refractory disease

Despite improvements in the newly-diagnosed AML, up to 45% of patients will not reach remission. For patients achieving complete remission, between 30% (younger patients-low-risk AML) and 80% (elderly patients-high-risk AML) will relapse (AML returns).

For patients who relapse or who are refractory (do not respond to induction therapy), re-induction with the same treatment as induction, or a different drug can be tried.

For patients with low risk of relapse, successive cycles of chemotherapy is standard. For patients with high risk of relapse, an ASCT is normally recommended.

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