Despite improvements in the newly-diagnosed AML, up to 45% of patients will not reach remission. For patients achieving complete remission, between 30% (younger patients-low-risk AML) and 80% (elderly patients-high-risk AML) will relapse (AML returns).
For patients who relapse or who are refractory (do not respond to induction therapy), re-induction with the same treatment as induction, or a different drug can be tried.
For patients with low risk of relapse, successive cycles of chemotherapy is standard. For patients with high risk of relapse, an ASCT is normally recommended.