Cytogenetic testing examines cells for chromosomes abnormalities and gene mutations.
There are two types of cytogenetic testing: standard and molecular:
- Standard cytogenetic analysis: The leukaemia cells are examined in the laboratory while they are dividing to show any chromosome abnormalities and gene mutations.
- Molecular cytogenetic analysis, using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH).
- With FISH, small portions of DNA are labelled in the laboratory with fluorescent dye to detect DNA sequences. FISH can identify the specific location of genes on a chromosome, how many copies of the gene are present, and any chromosomal abnormalities.
- FISH is a very quick and accurate cytogenetic test to detect abnormalities.