Intermediate level

Venous Access

Venous access is the access to the bloodstream via the veins.  Venous access is required for  Intravenous (IV) treatment administration such as medication or fluids (blood or rehydrating fluids) and nutrition if required Obtaining repeated venous blood samples  As an access point for blood-based treatments such as dialysis or apheresis.  – Apheresis involves removing whole …

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Extravasations

What will you learn in this module? What is meant by extravasation? How does extravasation differ from infiltration? How can extravasation be recognised? What are the signs and symptoms of extravasation? What are the risk factors for extravasation? What is the management of extravasation? How can extravasation be prevented? This e-learning module has been written …

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Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)

GVHD is a condition that occurs in patients who have received an ASCT, and where the graft (stem cells from the donor) reacts against the host (patient receiving the stem cells). An ASCT involves transplanting healthy stem cells from a suitable matching donor such as a sibling, parent or child into a patient with a …

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Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Side Effects

  Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are chronic blood cancers that arise due to a defect of the myeloid stem cells in the bone marrow which causes the production of too many abnormal blood cells that do not function properly. Normal blood stem cells in the bone marrow develop in time into mature blood cells that include: …

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End of life and acute leukaemia

Around 4000 people are diagnosed with acute leukaemia annually in the UK, 3200 with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and 800 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Survival figures for both AML and ALL vary greatly with age: in the over-65s, only 15% with ALL and 5% with AML live for more than 5 years after diagnosis. …

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Minimal/Measurable Residual Disease

  Conventional methods of detecting disease remission in cancers such as leukaemia rely on microscopic analysis of tissue samples. Measurable (or minimal) residual disease describes the presence of disease beyond the levels of sensitivity afforded by microscopy. This course describes what is meant by measurable residual disease, the opportunities and challenges afforded by its identification …

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CAR-T

Our immune system has vital roles in supporting and protecting against cancer development. In a highly complex network of interacting cells, immune cells both promote cancer cell growth and survival and selectively kill malignant cells. It is this killing ability that cancer cells must escape from in order to survive and flourish.  Research into the …

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