Glossary: Staging and general management

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation: the transplantation of stem cells from a healthy person (donor) to a patient after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation

Anaemia: deficiency of erythrocytes, causing tiredness, weakness and pallor

Autologous stem cell transplantation: the transplantation of stem cells derived from the patient’s own tissues, after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation

Bacteraemia: the presence of bacteria in the blood

Bone marrow hypoplasia: a low number of blood cells in the bone marrow

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase: an enzyme encoded by the BTKgene, which has a crucial role in B-cell development

Chromosome deletion: part of a chromosome is lost during DNA replication

Chromosome translocation: two sections of two different chromosomes break off and swap places

Cytopenia: a reduction in the number of mature blood cells

Epigenetics: modification of gene expression, rather than alteration of the gene code itself

Extramedullary: outside the medulla of the bone marrow

Haematopoiesis: blood cell development

Hilar lymphadenopathy: abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes in the pulmonary hila (the wedge-shaped central portion of each lung where the bronchi, arteries, veins and nerves enter and exit the lungs)

Hypogammaglobulinaemia: deficiency of gamma globulins, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) resulting in immunodeficiency

Immunophenotype: the characteristics of a cell in terms of its surface antigens from which its cell lineage can be determined

Intrathecal: within the fluid-filled space under the arachnoid membrane, which covers the brain and spinal cord

Lymphadenopathy: abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes

Lymphocytosis: increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood

Lymphodepletion: destruction of lymphocytes

Minimal residual disease: subclinical levels of leukaemia either during or after treatment

Mucositis: inflammation of mucous membranes

Myelotoxicity: destructive to the bone marrow or any of its elements

Pancytopenia: deficiency of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

Sepsis: a potentially life-threatening condition that arises when the body’s response to infection causes damage to its own tissues and organs

Splenomegaly: abnormal enlargement of the spleen

Thrombocytopenia: low platelet count

Thrombotic microangiopathy: formation of blood clots in the arterioles and capillaries

Trisomy: the presence of an additional chromosome; for example, trisomy 21 refers to an individual with three number 21 chromosomes rather than the usual pair (trisomy 21 is also known as Down’s syndrome)

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